Trojan horses are one type of malicious software used by hackers to gain control of a victim's device or to steal their sensitive information. They are named after the ancient Greek story of the Trojan War, where the Greeks used a giant wooden horse to deceive the Trojans and sneak into their city. In a similar way, hackers use Trojan horses to deceive users into letting them into their system. In this article, we will discuss how Trojan horses work, how they are distributed, and how we can protect ourselves against them.

What is a Trojan horse?

A Trojan horse is a type of malware that disguises itself as legitimate software or appears to be harmless. Like the Trojan horse of the ancient Greeks, it tricks the user into installing it on their device by hiding malicious code inside a seemingly innocent program or file. Once the user executes the Trojan, the malware takes control of their system, giving the hacker access to sensitive data, stealing personal information, or using the device to launch other attacks.

The difference between a virus and a Trojan horse

Trojan horses are often confused with viruses, but they are not the same thing. While viruses spread by replicating themselves and infecting other files, Trojan horses do not self-replicate or infect other files. Trojans need the user to execute them and give them permission to access the system, while viruses don't require user permission to spread. Another difference is that while viruses can be detected and removed by antivirus software, detecting Trojan horses can be more challenging, as their behavior can be stealthier and harder to spot.

How are Trojan horses distributed?

Trojan horses can be distributed in various ways, including phishing emails, malicious websites, software cracks and keygens, fake software updates, and peer-to-peer file-sharing networks. Hackers often use social engineering tactics to trick users into downloading and executing the malware. For example, they may send an email that appears to be from a legitimate source, such as a bank or a popular website, and ask the user to click on a link or download an attachment. The link or attachment contains the Trojan, which may remain hidden until the user runs the program or clicks on a malicious link.

Real-life examples of Trojan horses

One of the most infamous Trojan horses in recent years is the Emotet malware, which has been used to steal banking credentials and spread other malware. Emotet was first spotted in 2014 and has evolved over time to become one of the most sophisticated and persistent Trojan families. It is primarily distributed through phishing emails, which contain malicious Word documents that, when opened, execute the malware. Emotet can also spread laterally within a network, compromising multiple machines and stealing sensitive data.

Another example is the Trickbot Trojan, which is also used for stealing banking information and facilitating other cybercrime activities, such as ransomware attacks. Trickbot is usually delivered through phishing emails that contain malicious attachments or links to fake websites. The malware can also spread through network shares and remote desktop connections, making it difficult to contain and remove.

How to protect against Trojans

Protecting against Trojan horses requires a combination of technical measures and user awareness. Some of the best practices include:

1. Keep your software up to date: Ensure that you apply security patches and updates to your operating system and applications regularly. This helps prevent known vulnerabilities from being exploited by attackers.

2. Use antivirus software: Install and use reputable antivirus software that can detect and block Trojan horses. Keep the software up to date, and perform regular scans to detect and remove any malware.

3. Be wary of emails and downloads: Don't click on links or download attachments from email messages from unknown sources. Be especially careful with attachments that contain macros or executables, as these are often used to deliver Trojans.

4. Use strong passwords and enable two-factor authentication: Use complex passwords and enable two-factor authentication to protect your online accounts from being hacked.

5. Use a firewall: A firewall can help detect and prevent malicious traffic from entering your system. Keep the firewall up to date and configure it to block incoming connections unless they are necessary.


Trojan horses are a persistent threat to our digital security and can cause significant damage to users and organizations. They are difficult to detect and remove, and prevention is crucial to avoid falling victim to their traps. By being cautious with emails and downloads, keeping software up to date, and using antivirus software and firewalls, we can reduce the risk of Trojan horse attacks. Remember, just like the wooden horse of the Trojan War, Trojan horses are not what they seem, and we must be vigilant to avoid their deception.

How do Trojan Horses Work?

In Greek mythology, the Trojan Horse was a large, hollow wooden statue of a horse that was used by the Greeks during the Trojan War to gain access to the city of Troy. Inside the hollow horse was a group of Greek soldiers, led by Odysseus, who were able to sneak into the city undetected and open the gates for the rest of the Greek army.

In the world of cybersecurity, a Trojan horse is a type of malicious software (or malware) that is designed to trick computer users into downloading and installing it, often by appearing to be a useful or legitimate program or file. Once it has been installed, the Trojan horse can perform a wide range of malicious actions, from stealing personal information and login credentials to launching devastating cyberattacks on businesses and government agencies.

So how do Trojan horses work, and how can you protect yourself from them? Let's take a closer look.

The Anatomy of a Trojan Horse

To understand how Trojan horses work, it's important to first understand their basic structure. A typical Trojan horse consists of three main components:

1. The Trojan: This is the main piece of malware that the attacker wants to install on the victim's computer. It could be a backdoor, a keylogger, a ransomware tool, or any other type of malicious software.

2. The dropper: This is the component that is responsible for delivering the Trojan to the victim's computer. It could take the form of an email attachment, a software update, or a fake installer.

3. The trigger: This is the event that causes the dropper to deliver the Trojan. It could be something as simple as the victim clicking on a link or opening an email attachment, or it could be a more complex social engineering attack.

Once the Trojan horse has been successfully installed on the victim's computer, it can begin carrying out its malicious activities. Depending on the specific type of malware, these activities could include:

- Stealing sensitive personal and financial information, such as login credentials and credit card numbers.

- Launching distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks on websites and networks.

- Encrypting the victim's files and demanding a ransom payment to restore access.

- Planting additional malware on the victim's computer, or using it as part of a larger botnet.

Real-Life Examples of Trojan Horses

Although Trojan horses may seem like a relic of the early days of the internet, they remain a persistent threat to computer users of all kinds. Here are some real-life examples of Trojan horses in action:

1. Zeus Trojan: First discovered in 2007, the Zeus Trojan is a banking Trojan that is used to steal login credentials and financial information from victims. It is typically distributed through phishing emails or drive-by downloads, and once installed, it can also download additional malware onto the victim's computer.

2. WannaCry: The WannaCry ransomware attack of 2017 was one of the most devastating cyberattacks in recent history, affecting hundreds of thousands of computers around the world. The attack was carried out using a Trojan horse that exploited a vulnerability in Microsoft Windows, allowing the malware to spread rapidly across networks and encrypting the victims' files.

3. Emotet: First discovered in 2014, the Emotet Trojan is a sophisticated and constantly evolving piece of malware that is used to steal sensitive information, launch DDoS attacks, and distribute additional malware. It is typically spread through phishing emails that appear to be from trusted sources, and once installed, it can communicate with a command and control server to receive further instructions.

Protecting Yourself from Trojan Horses

So how can you protect yourself from Trojan horses and other types of malware? Here are some tips:

1. Install antivirus software: A good antivirus program can help detect and remove Trojan horses and other malware before they can cause damage.

2. Keep your software up-to-date: Many Trojan horses exploit vulnerabilities in outdated software, so make sure you download the latest security patches and updates for all your programs.

3. Be careful what you download: Only download software and files from trusted sources, and be wary of suspicious links or email attachments.

4. Use strong passwords: A strong password can help prevent attackers from stealing your login credentials.

5. Beware of social engineering: Trojan horses often rely on social engineering tactics to trick victims into installing them, so be on the lookout for suspicious emails, phone calls, or messages.


Trojan horses may have originated in ancient Greece, but they remain a potent threat in the modern era of cybersecurity. By understanding how these malicious programs work and taking appropriate precautions, you can help protect your computer, your data, and your personal information from the prying eyes of cybercriminals. Stay safe out there!


The Trojan horse is a term that originates from Greek mythology, describing the tactic used to bring down the city of Troy. The Greeks built a large wooden horse, hiding a group of soldiers inside, and presented it as a gift to the Trojans. The Trojans unsuspectingly brought the horse inside their fortified walls, believing it to be a gift of peace. As night fell, the Greek soldiers emerged from the horse, opening the gates of Troy and ending the decade-long siege.

Fast forward to the modern age, and the term ‘Trojan horse’ is no longer just a mythological storyline. It has become a commonly used term in cybersecurity, referring to a type of malware that disguises itself as a legitimate programme. The Trojan horse works by exploiting the weakness of the victim’s computer, allowing attackers to gain unauthorized access and control.

In this article, we’ll take a closer look at how Trojan horses work, the various types available, their impact on victims, and how to protect yourself against them.

What Is a Trojan Horse?

A Trojan horse is a type of malicious software designed to conceal its true purpose from the victim. It baits users by masquerading itself as a legitimate software, often disguising itself as an enticing file that a user might download to make their PC work better. Common disguises include free antivirus software, software updates, or driver downloads.

Once the user downloads and executes the disguised malware, it executes any combination of instructions instructed by the attacker. The malware can perform various activities such as installing more malicious software, spying and stealing data, or giving hackers control to the victim’s system. By the time victims realise their system has been compromised, it is often too late.

The Evolution of Trojan Horses

The first Trojan horse was reported in 1975 and was called the “Wabbit,” taking its origination from the famous bug problems in Looney Tunes. It was a self-replicating programme that took up significant amounts of computer memory, making it tough to detect until the machine crashed.

As technology evolved and the internet became more accessible, Trojan horses became more sophisticated and harder to detect. Nowadays, they can be propagating themselves on autonomous networks and may have extensive administrative rights on users’ systems. With advancements in social engineering attacks, hackers can easily compel users to download and execute malicious programmes.

Types of Trojan Horses

There are many different types of Trojan horses, each tailored to perform malicious activities that range from social engineering to complex data breaches. Let’s take a closer look at some of the most common types of Trojan horses.

Nowadays, most cybercriminals utilize rootkits to compromise users’ systems and dodge recognition from anti-virus programs. Rootkits typically elevate their administration access privileges into the system kernel level, allowing them to execute foreign code without being detected by the system.

Backdoor Trojan Horses:
Backdoor Trojan horses, as the name suggests, create backdoors in the user’s system that attackers use to access the system without permission. Once backdoors are configured, an attacker can use them for command-line access to download and install other malicious software to the victim’s system.

Data-Sending Trojan Horses:
Data-sending Trojan horses operate silently on victims’ systems, stealing sensitive and valuable data from their targets. The retrieved data is then sent back to the attacker, enabling them to use the gathered information for blackmail, cyber espionage, or other malicious activities.

How Trojan Horses Work

As mentioned earlier, Trojan horses are often disguised as legitimate software and delivered to victims' systems via social engineering attacks. Once installed, attackers can manipulate the system to perform a plethora of unauthorized tasks without the victim's knowledge.

These tasks may include:

Stealing Your Information
Once hackers have access to your system, they can extract valuable data such as Banking credentials, personal identification information (PII) and other sensitive data to execute fraudulent transactions and impersonate the victim. Hackers may also use this as leverage to extort their victims.

Performing Unauthorized Activities with Your System
After hackers have gained access to victims’ systems, they can utilise them for various activities, such as sending spam messages or launching Distributed Denial of Service (DoS) attacks. Backdoor Trojan horses can be used to hide other malware like viruses and keyloggers, compromising victims’ systems in multiple ways. The attacker may also force a victim’s system to participate in an illegal botnet network.

Aiding Anonymity and Privacy Invasion
Attackers can use Trojan horses to elevate their administration access privileges and remain anonymous on the victim’s system while performing their malicious activities. With this access, hackers can place spying or surveillance tools on the victim’s computer, allowing them to monitor and record user activity.

Protecting Yourself Against Trojan Horses

The best protection against Trojan horses is to follow some basic cybersecurity best practices, including:

- Only download files from verified sources or trusted websites.
- Ensure that your antivirus software is always updated and valid.
- Avoid clicking on sketchy links sent via email or messaging platforms.
- Avoid downloading and installing executable files from untrusted sources or without scanning with a legitimate antivirus.
- Keep all of your systems, applications, and software updated with latest security patches to abate vulnerabilities.
- Monitor your system’s activity, log-in sessions, and network traffic for abnormalities regularly.


In summary, Trojan horses are a type of malware that hackers use to gain access to your system by masking their malicious intentions behind attractive software. They can be used for a variety of nefarious activities such as stealing data, performing illegal activities, or aiding in identity theft and fraud.

To avoid falling prey to Trojan Horses and their impact, it is essential that we practice basic cybersecurity best practices such as avoiding suspicious downloads and sites, using up-to-date antivirus software and scanning files before use, monitoring our systems’ activities regularly, and keeping our software updated with the latest security patches.

While the Trojan horse may have originated in Greek mythos, it's up to us to ensure that this mythical figure remains a fable in our modern age, lest we be victims of a malicious Trojan attack in this digital age.

How Do Trojan Horses Work? The Dark Secret Behind Malware Attacks

In the world of cybersecurity, the term "Trojan horse" refers to a type of malware that is designed to conceal its existence from the user by disguising itself as a legitimate program. Despite its innocent appearance, once the Trojan horse is installed on a victim's device, it can be used to steal sensitive information, damage data, and even take control of the compromised system.

The name "Trojan horse" comes from the ancient Greek myth in which the Greeks built a wooden horse and hid soldiers inside of it to infiltrate the city of Troy. Similarly, these malicious programs are disguised as innocuous files that are distributed through various channels such as email attachments, fake software downloads, and social media links.

One of the core features of Trojan horses that make them so effective is their ability to operate in stealth mode. Unlike computer viruses or worms, Trojans do not replicate themselves, making them harder to detect and eradicate. Once they have infiltrated a system, they can remain undetected for weeks or even months before causing any damage - allowing cybercriminals to gather sensitive data over an extended period.

Types of Trojan Horses

There are many types of Trojan horses, and each has a specific objective. Some of the most common types include:

1. Backdoor Trojan Horse - This type of Trojan horse creates a backdoor on a victim's computer, allowing cybercriminals to access the system remotely. From there, they can steal sensitive data, install additional malware, or use the machine as part of a botnet for distributed denial of service attacks.

2. Banking Trojan Horse - Banking Trojans aim to steal financial information such as usernames, passwords, and credit card details from victims' devices. They can be disguised as banking apps or websites to lure in unsuspecting users.

3. Spyware Trojan Horse - This Trojan horse is designed to spy on a victim's activities, such as keystrokes, browsing history, and chats. The information gathered is then transmitted to cybercriminals who can use it for various purposes such as identity theft and data misuse.

4. Ransomware Trojan Horse - Ransomware Trojans take over a victim's computer and encrypt their files, rendering them inaccessible. The attackers demand a ransom payment in exchange for the decryption key to unlock the files.

How Do Trojan Horses Infiltrate Devices?

Trojans can infiltrate devices in many ways, some of which include:

1. Email attachments - Cybercriminals can disguise Trojan horses as innocuous email attachments and distribute them via spam campaigns.

2. Fake software downloads - Ads or pop-ups claiming to offer software updates or applications can deliver Trojan horses, sometimes bundled with freeware or shareware programs.

3. Social engineering - Cyber criminals can trick users into installing Trojans by posing as legitimate software providers, government authorities, or other trusted entities.

4. Drive-by downloads - This type of installation occurs when a user visits a compromised website, which downloads and installs the Trojan horse onto their computer automatically.

Preventing Trojan Horse Attacks

Prevention is the best defense against Trojan horse attacks. There are several security measures that individuals and organizations can implement to reduce their risk of infection, including:

1. Keeping software up to date - Updating operating systems, applications, and security software regularly can help prevent attackers from exploiting known vulnerabilities.

2. Avoiding suspicious downloads and attachments - Only download software and open attachments from trusted sources.

3. Installing anti-virus and anti-malware software - This type of software can detect and remove Trojan horses and other malware from your device.

4. Using two-factor authentication - Two-factor authentication adds an extra layer of protection by requiring a second form of verification in addition to a password.

5. Educating employees and the public - Educating people about the risks of Trojan horses and how to spot suspicious activity is crucial in preventing successful attacks.


Trojan horses are a sinister type of malware that can cause untold damage to victims on a personal and organizational level. The ability of these malicious programs to go unnoticed for long periods makes them particularly insidious and difficult to remove. However, implementing good security practices can help mitigate the risk of infection. By staying vigilant, keeping software up to date, and being aware of the dangers posed by Trojan horse attacks, people can take steps to protect themselves and their organizations from these malicious programs.

Computer security is an ever-present necessity in today's digitally driven world. It is said that every new day brings a new method or technique to deceive unsuspecting individuals into giving up their data or computer control. One such method that has been around for quite some time, yet is still very potent today, is the Trojan horse. Like the mythological tale, a Trojan horse computer virus looks innocent on the surface, but it carries a malicious payload beneath its surface. In this article, we would explore how Trojan horses work, their history, and provide a few real-life examples of how they work in today's world.

The Origins of the Trojan Horse

History records the Trojan Horse as a story of treachery and deception, where the Greek army built a wooden horse, hid soldiers inside it, and gifted it to the city of Troy, inside which the soldiers opened the city's gates, allowing the Greek army to conquer them. This strategy has been used in various ways, including a military attack on computers through the Trojan horse virus, which is now a popular cybersecurity term.

The first recorded use of the name 'Trojan horse' in the cybersecurity world was in 1974, when a computer program disguised as a game became popular on university mainframes. Hackers in those days would try to break into the mainframes to show off their skills rather than stealing valuable data. Trojan horse viruses slowly grew from being just a hacker's tool to becoming part of organized crime. By the 1990s, various hackers had created multiple types of Trojan horse viruses, including the "Pirate" virus that offered free software in exchange for using the user's PC to receive and disseminate pirated content.

How Trojan Horse Works

A Trojan horse is designed to appear stable and beneficial to the computer user, tricking the user to install it. There is no way to know if a program or file is infected by a Trojan horse without running an antivirus. When a user installs a Trojan horse, the seemingly harmless file opens a port on the connection which the hacker behind the Trojan horse can use to access the computer.

Once a Trojan horse is installed, it can facilitate theft of personal data, use the computer as part of a collection of infected machines for more significant attacks, or simply deny the user access to their system until they pay the hackers a "ransom."

Types of Trojan Horse

Trojan horses manifest themselves in different ways. There are backdoor Trojans, data sending Trojans, and ransomware Trojans, which are the most common types;

Backdoor Trojan: These Trojans are designed to create a 'backdoor' on the computer, giving the hacker unrestricted access to the system. A few of them perform a series of scans searching for vulnerable software to install themselves onto a victim's computer, and their activity can range from simple keylogging (collecting and transmitting keystrokes) to remote control of the affected computer.

Data-Sending Trojan: This Trojan provides remote access to a victim's sensitive data, such as financial information, personal data, bank account details, and passwords. Cybercriminals can use these Trojans for identity theft or to access a user's bank account and wire transfer money to their own account.

Ransomware Trojan: As the name implies, Ransomware Trojans are designed to restrict a victim's access to their computer, holding the machine hostage until payment is made. Usually, payment is demanded in cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin to minimize the risk of being traced.

Real-Life Examples of Trojan Horse Malware

Trojan horses have been used to execute some of the most successful cyber-attacks in history. Two prime examples are the attacks against the Ukrainian power grid and the Democratic National Committee (DNC) email hack.

The Ukrainian Power Grid Attack: In December 2015, a Trojan horse attack hit Ukraine's power grid, blacking out over 230,000 households for hours. The Trojan horse used malware named Black Energy to infiltrate the power grid, allowing hackers to take control and cause damage to the electrical infrastructure.

The DNC Hack: In 2016, an unknown Russian hacking group used one of the most infamous Trojan horses, the "Cozy Bear" backdoor Trojan, to steal data from the Democratic National Committee (DNC). The Trojan was successfully installed onto DNC computers when an employee clicked on a malicious hyperlink disguising itself as a legitimate email, setting off a chain of events that led to the release of sensitive data.

Prevent Trojan Horse Attacks

The best way to protect your computer systems from Trojan horses is with a robust antivirus, such as Norton or McAfee. These antiviruses are updated daily with the latest databases of malware, ensuring that any new infection methods used to introduce Trojan horses to systems are detected, quarantined, and eradicated before damage is done. Apart from antiviruses, other essential precautions include regular system updates and careful web browsing by avoiding clicking unknown links, visiting suspicious websites, or opening email attachments from unknown sources.


Trojan horses are some of the most damaging malware that can be installed on your computer, but preventing these attacks can be straightforward with a little effort. Users should install and maintain a robust antivirus, regularly update their computer systems, and avoid suspicious links, emails and websites. Most importantly, stay informed about the latest cybersecurity news, techniques, and trends to protect yourself from the ever-evolving world of cybersecurity.

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