What is a Supply Chain Attack?
Imagine you receive a package from Amazon, and inside it, you find a smart speaker purchased by your friend. But what if that speaker had come not from Amazon, but from a warehouse of an impersonator masquerading as the online shopping giant, and carrying a malicious payload? That's a supply chain attack, where hackers infiltrate an organization's systems by targeting its third-party suppliers.
Supply chain attacks have become an increasingly common modus operandi for cybercriminals. They prey on the fact that modern businesses rely on interconnected networks, where one weak link can compromise the entire system. In a supply chain attack, attackers leverage vulnerabilities in these networks to infiltrate one supplier, leading to access to the next organization and the next until they reach the ultimate target.
For example, in 2020, attackers targeted SolarWinds, a software provider that manages the IT infrastructure of over 300,000 companies. The attackers infected SolarWind's software updates with malicious code, which was installed by the customers of SolarWinds and gave the attackers access to their systems. The malware was able to avoid detection since it was coming from a trusted source. Over 18,000 customers of SolarWinds, including several US government agencies, were breached.
Types of Supply Chain Attacks
Supply chain attacks come in various forms. Here are some of the most common ones:
1. Third-Party Software Attacks
This is the most common type of supply chain attack. In this attack, attackers exploit vulnerabilities in third-party software, which is installed on the target's systems. It is often difficult to detect malware in third-party software since it appears to be legitimate.
2. Hardware Attacks
Attackers may also breach a supply chain by introducing vulnerabilities in hardware components like memory chips, routers, and servers. These attacks can be difficult to detect since they are built into the hardware.
3. Firmware Attacks
Attackers may seek to bypass antivirus software by targeting the firmware that operates the hardware components of a computer system. Firmware attacks allow hackers to infect a device without the need for any software interaction. They're difficult to detect since they occur deep within the hardware.
4. Services Attacks
In this type of attack, hackers infiltrate a supplier's network to gain access to its sensitive data. They are often looking for ways to exploit any shared services that may be used by their target organizations.
5. Physical Attacks
Physical attacks involve tampering with supply chain components during shipping or storage. For example, hackers may modify packaging and delivery labels to redirect shipments to a different location, and then install malware on the compromised equipment.
Supply chain attacks pose a significant challenge for cybersecurity professionals, who must now cast a wider net to identify threats and sector-specific risks. Here are some steps that organizations can take to mitigate these risks:
1. Risk Assessments
Organizations can conduct supply chain risk assessments to identify their potential vulnerabilities. They need to know what data is at risk, who has access to it, and what security measures are in place to protect it.
2. Contractual Requirements
Organizations can include security requirements in their contracts with third-party suppliers. These could include data encryption, access controls, and security monitoring.
3. Ongoing Monitoring
It's critical to continuously monitor suppliers' security posture through audits and penetration testing. Organizations must also monitor their networks, looking for evidence of vulnerability exploitation or malware installation.
4. Employee Training
Employees should be trained in identifying and reporting suspicious activities to the IT department. This includes performing regular security awareness training and updating their knowledge of security protocols and policies.
Organizations may consider purchasing cyber-insurance coverage to help mitigate risks and respond to a breach should all other measures fail.
Supply chain attacks are complex and challenging breaches. They're difficult to detect and remediate once they happen. Organizations must work together to protect their assets and data from these types of breaches. This means increased awareness of the risks posed by third-party suppliers, continuous monitoring of supplier networks, and robust incident response plans. With these preventive steps in place, businesses can continue to build resilience in the face of cyber threats.