Decrypting Ransomware: A Step-by-Step Guide to How It Takes Over Your Computer

How Do Ransomware Work?

Ransomware is a type of malware that has become increasingly common in recent years, and it has caused financial and personal damages to individuals, companies, and even governments worldwide. It is a malicious software that encrypts the victim's files, making them unreadable, and demands payment in exchange for the decryption key. In this article, we will explore how ransomware works, the different types that exist, and what you can do to prevent it.

What Is Ransomware and How Does It Work?

Ransomware is a type of malware that typically enters a victim's computer through phishing emails, malicious downloads, or vulnerabilities in outdated software. Once it gains access to the device, it begins to encrypt files that often have a specific extension, such as .docx, .pdf, .jpg, and others. This encryption renders the files unreadable, usually by changing their format or adding a new extension, such as .locked or .encrypted. A ransom note then appears on the victim's screen, informing them that their files have been encrypted and that they must pay a specific amount of money, usually in bitcoin or another cryptocurrency, to receive the decryption key.

The ransom note may also include a deadline, threatening that the price will increase, or the decryption key will be destroyed if the payment is not made within a certain period. The note also often contains instructions on how to pay the ransom, which may include links to specific websites or detailed steps on how to set up a bitcoin wallet. Once the payment is made, the attackers will send the decryption key, which may or may not work, depending on their intentions.

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Different Types of Ransomware

Not all ransomware operates the same way, and attackers use various techniques to achieve their goals. Here are some of the most common types of ransomware in use today:

1. Crypto Ransomware

This type of ransomware targets files on the infected computer and encrypts them, making them inaccessible to the user. Crypto ransomware is often the most lucrative type of ransomware for attackers since victims are often desperate to retrieve their personal data.

2. Locker Ransomware

Locker ransomware aims to lock the victim out of their computer entirely. Attackers usually use a screen locker or password reset approach to deny entry to the system. This type of ransomware is designed to be more irritating than damaging, but it can be potent against those with important data stored on their computer's hard drive.

3. Mobile Ransomware

This type of ransomware typically targets mobile devices such as smartphones or tablets. It can use a similar tactic as computer ransomware in that it may encrypt files or lock the user out of their device entirely.

4. Doxware

Doxware, also referred to as leakware or extortionware, not only encrypts the victims' files but also threatens to release sensitive information publicly if the ransom demand is unmet.

Preventing Ransomware

Preventing ransomware can be challenging, but with the following steps, you can significantly reduce your risk of being a victim of the next attack.

1. Don't open unknown or suspicious attachments or links.

Most ransomware occurs as a result of users opening and downloading attachments or clicking on links from untrusted sources. Be cautious and suspicious of emails, messages, and pop-ups you receive on your computer or mobile device and avoid clicking on them if you're unsure.

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2. Keep your software and operating systems up to date.

Ransomware usually exploits vulnerabilities in outdated operating systems or software. Install security patches and updates as soon as they become available to help prevent attacks.

3. Back up your essential data regularly.

Backing up your most valuable data and files regularly will enable you to recover your data if you fall prey to ransomware.

4. Use antimalware software.

Install antimalware software on your system and always keep it up to date. Antivirus software can detect and remove malware before it infects your computer or mobile device.


Ransomware is a malicious software that encrypts files and demands payment in exchange for the decryption key. It comes in various forms, and attackers use different strategies to achieve their objectives. Preventing ransomware can be challenging, but taking steps such as not opening suspicious links or attachments, keeping software up to date, backing up data, and using antimalware software can significantly reduce the risk of falling victim to a ransomware attack. Stay vigilant, and be cautious when handling emails and messages from unknown or untrusted sources, and protect your systems accordingly.

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